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It can be described in many different ways, for Ex.: including sharp shooting pain, like a knife, burning, searing, an electric shock or general ache which goes down the leg.

  • Several people can experience more local pain where others only feel the pain in their calf or side of the leg.

  • Tasks include bending down to put socks or shoes on, standing up from sitting, getting out of bed, getting in or out of the car, lifting or carrying things that would be painful.

  • It might be noticeable tingling, pins and needles or numbness in the calf or foot.

  • In general, the person will find themself protecting back and moving slower because they are scared that the pain might shoot.


Sciatica - back pain, spreading along the back-outer surface of the thigh to the lower leg and foot.

How does it feel?

TOP 6 Causes of Sciatica

   Various diseases of the lumbar spine can cause sciatica. Sciatica described as moderate to intense leg pain caused by compression of one or more of the five pairs of nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Sometimes doctors call sciatica radiculopathy. Radiculopathy is a term used to describe pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the arms or legs caused by nerve root problems. If the problem is in the cervical region, the condition is called cervical radiculopathy. Since sciatica affects the lumbar region, it is also called lumbar radiculopathy.

Causes of pain:

  Five pairs of nerve roots in the lumbosacral region are combined to create a whole sciatic nerve brunch; it starts at the back of the pelvis (sacrum) and run behind the buttocks and down through the hip joint lower extremities. Nerve roots are not separate structures but part of the general nervous system of the body, capable of transmitting pain and sensations to other parts of the body. Radiculopathy usually is caused by nerve root compression, a ruptured disc, or bone overgrowth before joining the sciatic nerve.

Compression of the sciatic nerve

  Certain types of spinal disorders can cause spinal nerve compression and sciatica or lumbar radiculopathy. The six most common ones are listed below:

* disc herniation;

* stenosis of the lumbar spine;

* spondylolisthesis;

* trauma;

* piriformis syndrome;

* tumours of the spine.

Protrusion or herniated disc

  Disc protrusion is a condition when the central gel-like part of the disc (nucleus pulposus) protrudes towards the spinal canal, while the integrity of the outer wall of the disc (annulus fibrosus) is not compromised. When the nucleus pulposus extends beyond the annulus fibrosus, a herniated disc occurs. When a disc protrudes or herniates, the bulging portion of the disc can compress the adjacent nerve root and cause sciatica. However, the consequences of a herniated disc are worse. At the same time, the prolapsed nucleus of the disc not only causes direct compression of the nerve root but at the same time the substance of the disc contains acid, a chemical irritant (hyaluronic acid), which causes inflammation of the nerve. Nerve compression and irritation create inflammation and pain, often leading to numbness in the limbs, tingling, and muscle weakness.

Lumbar spine stenosis

  Spinal stenosis is manifested by nerve compression and most often affects adults. Sciatica-like pain in the lower extremities may result from stenosis of the lumbar spine. The pain is usually positional, manifested when changing the body's position, standing up or walking and relieving when sitting. Nerve roots branches arising from the spinal cord and exit through the foraminal foramen, bounded by bones and ligaments. Nerve roots emerge from these openings and innervate other parts of the body; when these holes become narrow and cause nerve compression, the term foraminal stenosis describes an issue (pathology).


  Spondylolisthesis most commonly affects the lumbar spine. In this case, the overlying vertebra displaced in relation to the underlying one. As a result, the nerve root pinched when the vertebra slides and shifts, causing sciatica pain in the legs. Spondylolisthesis is divided into congenital and acquired (due to degenerative changes, trauma, exercise, or heavy lifting.

Injury of sciatica may be the result from direct compression of the nerve root caused by external forces on the lumbosacral spine. For example, in the event of a road traffic injury, falling, Etc. This effect can damage nerves when fragments of broken bone cause compression of the nerves.

Piriformis syndrome

  This syndrome named after the piriformis muscle, and pain caused when this muscle irritates the sciatic nerve. The piriformis muscle is localized in the pelvic region, connects the femur and participates in the rotation of the thigh. Underneath this muscle runs sciatic nerve runs. Piriformis syndrome develops when this muscle spasms, thus compressing the sciatic nerve. Unfortunately, due to the lack of information content of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging, the diagnosis of this pathology is difficult.

Spine tumours

  Spinal tumours characterized by abnormal tissue growth and classified as benign or malignant. The incidence of spinal tumours is quite rare. However, in the development of a lumbar spine's tumour, there is a risk of sciatica due to compression of the nerve root.

Sciatica treatment

  For the treatment plan, diagnostics are essential, including a neurological examination, X-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging. Then, depending on the cause, there are several treatments available. For example, conservative therapy includes changes in activity, physiotherapy, manual therapy, and various blockers to relieve inflammation of the nerve root. Surgical treatment includes removing a herniated disc through a small incision (microdiscectomy), and in case of stenosis, decompression surgery with partial or complete removal of the vertebral arch (laminectomy).

How can Monaghan Therapy help?

  At Monaghan Therapy, I will talk to you and listen to you about how your pain affects your everyday activities. I will start with assessing your movements, joints and nerves to determine the exact cause of your pain. Once I have diagnosed your injury, I will use various techniques such as mobilisations, massage, stretching, dry needling, electrotherapy, taping, muscle energy techniques, neuromuscular therapy. I will advise for some primary home exercises/stretches to help you get better and faster. Finally, I will educate you about your injury and set goals to achieve in and out of our sessions. Painkillers and Anti-inflammatories (NSAID) can help to relieve some pain, and I recommend seeing your local Pharmacist or General practitioner regarding the best type for you.

There is various treatments available at Monaghan Therapy for Sciatica pain.

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